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Pyrometallurgical Recycling Process Routes – Distribution analysis of valuable metals and the economic consequences
Poster Exhibition

The poster will provide an overview of the distribution of valuable materials of different lithium-ion battery cell systems during pyrometallurgical recovery processes. Among others, the focus will be on the NMC 111, LFP and Mn-rich NMC 271 battery. The batteries have been selected to represent the diversity of existing battery technologies. The pyrometallurgical processes to be distinguished are, on the one hand, the direct melting process without prior in-depth dismantling of battery modules and, on the other hand, a multi-stage recycling route that includes thermal pre-treatment, mechanical recovery of explicit fractions and melting of the fine fraction. The material flow balances are drawn up and presented with the help of error square minimization. As different cathode materials are used in the selected lithium-ion batteries, the products as well as their composition of the respective recycling process will inevitably differ. This difference ultimately also leads to an economic impact of the recovery processes. . For the economic perspective, a contribution margin analysis is performed for the different recycling process steps to be compared amongst battery types. In a second step, a total cost of ownership analysis (TCO) (considering i.e. initial investment, fixed and variable costs) allows to compare pyrometallurgical recycling processes for different battery types. Overall, this poster serves to illustrate the direct impact of innovations in battery technology on the subsequent pyrometallurgical recycling process.

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Linda Reinhart, Dr. Elinor Rombach, Prof. Dr. Bernd Friedrich, Prof. Dr. Peter Letmathe