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A Bibliometric Analysis on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Batteries

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Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful method used to investigate the electrochemical performance of batteries and battery components. It helps to determine the impedance of the batteries and correlated parameters over a wide frequency range by measuring the voltage response to a current disturbance or vice versa. The main purpose of this bibliometric study is to provide an idea about the historical overview and research developments of the EIS method for batteries and their components. In line with this target, the publications related to “EIS” and “Batteries” between 2000-2021 were obtained via the “Scopus” database in the first week of January 2022, and a total of 4326 articles have been found. According to research trends from 2000 to 2021, the number of articles related to the usage of this technique for batteries has been almost stable recently. A total of 4326 articles related to EIS and batteries were analysed by visualising the co-occurrence of the keywords used in these articles and their association with the EIS via “VOSviewer” software. It has been presented a connective network with the most common 50 keywords. Furthermore, the distribution of these words with regard to the years they are used is also presented. It has been observed that the most frequently used keywords recently are “all-solid-state battery”, “sodium-ion batteries”, “distribution of relaxation times”, “equivalent circuit model”, and “state of health”. In addition, 1100 English articles with more than 35 citations have been excluded out of 4326 articles for further analysis. It was determined that EIS is used to characterise which kind of battery chemistry in the most cited articles. According to these articles, the EIS method has been predominantly used to characterise lithium-ion batteries. It is also promising for performance analysis of the other battery chemistries such as sodium-ion, lithium-sulfur and redox-flow batteries. After realising that lithium-ion batteries are the most studied battery chemistry with EIS, the articles linked to this subject has been analysed in detail. It has been found that the most studied battery component to be characterised by the EIS method is the cathode material. Furthermore, it is established that EIS has been used for many purposes such as characterization of electrochemical performance, modelling and parameter identification, investigation of ageing, state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH) and remaining of useful life (RUL) estimation for lithium-ion batteries.

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